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MKT301 Sales, Distribution and Supply Chain
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1. Explain the process of Personal selling.
Answer: Process to Personal Selling

The key to the development of the sales force is the finalization of the appropriate sales processes by each organization.

2 What are the various recent trends in International Sales Management?
Answer: Following are the recent trends in the area of sales management:

Intense Competition: Due to liberalization, privatization and globalization (LPG), the sales environment of today’s organizations has changed a great deal. The selling firms are not competing with new domestic players but with foreign competitors too.
3 i. Define Wholesaler
ii. Explain the functions of Wholesaler
iii. Explain the applications of IT in various areas of wholesaling

i. Define Wholesaler
The wholesaler essentially purchases the goods from the producer, stocks them, and redistributes these to the other intermediaries like the retailers who subsequently sell them to the end-users or the customers. This function of the wholesaler enables:


1 Write short notes on Vertical Marketing System (VMS) and Horizontal Marketing System (HMS)
Answer: Vertical Marketing System

A Vertical Marketing System (VMS) is a system in which almost all the members of distribution channel such as manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers work together to satisfy human needs and wants by facilitating the smooth flow of goods and services from manufacturer to the ultimate consumer.
2 What do you mean by Demand Management? Explain Demand Management Model.
Explain Demand Management
The concept of demand management has been an evolving concept, i.e., it has been changing over time. The reasons for the changes that are taking place in demand management are because of the geographical expansion of both the ‘market’ and the ‘supply ecosystems’ new technologies that are evolving in communication and new tools that have been developed for planning. Each of these has contributed to the efforts of companies and supply chains that are now developing whole new models for managing demand.
3 Explain Logistics Management. What are the various Determinants of Designing Logistical System?
Answer: One dictionary definition of logistics is: ‘the time-related positioning of resources.’ However, a formal definition of logistics management can be, ‘Design and operation of the physical, managerial and informational systems needed to allow goods to overcome time and space (from the producer to the consumer)’.

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MKT302 Consumer Behaviour

1 Explain Market Segmentation. Describe the important bases on which markets are segmented.
Answer: Market Segmentation.
A market is composed of individuals with dissimilar needs and wants; hence, it is called a heterogeneous market. Prior to the acceptance of the marketing concept, mass marketing was the way of doing business with consumers
2 Write short notes on Psychoanalytic Theory/Freudian Theory and Trait Theory and Consumer Behaviour
Answer: Psychoanalytic Theory/Freudian Theory
Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory is based on the premise that unconscious needs and drives, particularly sexual and other biological drives are at the core of human motivation and personality. The theory proposes that every individual’s personality is the result of childhood conflicts. These conflicts are derived from three fundamental components of personality:
3 Write short notes on Tri Component Attitude Model and Katz functional theory and attitude change.
Answer: Tri-component attitude model
According to this model, attitudes consist of three main components:
1. Cognitive component (knowledge, beliefs)
2. Affective component (emotions, feelings)
3. Conative component (behavioural aspect)
Assignment Set -2

1 Explain the Consumer decision Making process.
Answer: Consumer buying decision process is explained through a number of stages and is influenced by one’s psychological framework comprising the individual’s personality, learning process, levels of motivation, perception towards products and brands, and formation of positive attitude towards the brand.
Let us now study the stages in detail.

2 Explain any five factors affecting diffusion of innovation. What are the five categories of adopters classified by time of adoption?
Answer: Diffusion of innovation refers to how a new innovation – an idea or technology – spreads or is adopted by an entire market (technology) or society (ideologies) in stages (diffusing).
3 Write short notes on Nicosia Model of Consumer Decision-Making (Conflict Model) and Howard-Sheth Model

Nicosia Model of Consumer Decision-Making (Conflict Model)
Francesco Nicosia was one of the first to develop consumer behaviour model in the early 1960s and shift focus from the act of purchase itself to the more complex decision process that consumers engage in about products and services.

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1 What is Retail Marketing Environment? Define elements in a Retail Marketing Environment.
Answer: Everything that surrounds and impinges on a system can be called as an environment. Systems of many kinds have environments with which they interact. Retail Marketing can also be seen as a system which must respond to environmental change. If businesses do not cope up with external changes like new sources of competition or changes in consumers' preferences, they may fail.
2 Define consumer decision behavior. Explain types of decision behavior.
Sometimes consumers undertake a complex decision process requiring substantial amounts of time and energy. In situations where consumers are making a decision for the first time, actions must be based on some form of problem solving.
Q3. Critically examine types of Store Layout.
Answer: Types of Store Layout
There are several types of store layout. Let us now look at each of them in detail.

Racetrack form
This layout ensures the shoppers start from the point where they enter the stores, flow through the entire store and then get back to where they started from. In lifestyle stores this called forced circulation wherein the shoppers are led through the store along the racetrack using very strategically placed feature points.
1 What are Private Label Brands? Elaborate growth drivers of Private Label Brands.
Answer: Private labels or store brands are the products developed and marketed by the retailer himself. It is a label unique to a specific retailer. These products largely have low prices as compared to regional, national or international brands, although recently some private label brands have been set as "premium" brands in order to compete with national brands, or example, the private brand Feasters’ instant noodles sells more than Maggi.
2 Elaborate Customer Relationship Management Strategies.
Answer: Customer Relationship Management Strategies
Customer Relationship Marketing (CRM) strategies refer to any effort that is actively made by a seller towards a buyer, and is intended to contribute to the buyer's customer value above and beyond the core product and/or the service provided.
3 Describe the four stages of International Business.
Answer: The four stages of International Business:
1. Stage one: Domestic focus: In this stage, firms have a strong domestic focus with all activity concentrated in the home market. Whilst many organisations can survive like this, solely domestically oriented organisations may not be able to make the cut in the long term.

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MKT 304 -Marketing Research
1 What do you mean by research? State some of its characteristics.

Answer: Meaning of Research

Research is a systematic and intensive study undertaken to:

• Address the fundamental questions or

• Find a solution to the existing problems.

2 Write a short note on the criteria of choosing a good research design.
Answer: The criteria of a good research design are:

• Feasibility: Designs should be implemented in a correct form. The duration and sequence of events should be designed in a proper way. Problems should be anticipated in measurement, adherence to assignment and database construction. Additional groups should be included in the design to explicitly correct such problems.

3 Explain comparative scales and its types.
Answer: Comparative scaling techniques help in direct comparison between stimulus objects. One of the main advantages of comparative scaling is the easy application by researcher and easy understanding by the respondent with fewer theoretical assumptions.


4 Explain various types of probability sampling techniques with suitable examples.
Answer: Classification of Probability Sampling Techniques

Probability sampling techniques can be categorised as follows:

• Simple random

• Systematic random

• Stratified random

• Random clusters

• Complex Multistage random

• Stratified clusters

However, in this unit, we will restrict ourselves to the discussion of only four types of probability sampling.

Simple random sampling: In this, there

5 Analyse the steps involved in hypothesis testing.
Answer: Steps Involved in Hypothesis Testing

Now you are going to learn various steps involved in hypothesis testing, which are explained below.

1. Setting-up of hypothesis: The first step is to set up the decision making process. This involves specifying the null hypothesis (H0) and the alternative hypothesis (H).

6 Write short notes on:
a) Media planning
Answer: Media planning is quite essential in establishing the best way to disperse advertisers’ message across to the consumer market through various media channels. In short, the main goal of the media plan is to find such combination of media resources, which facilitate the marketer to communicate their message effectively to the majority of potential clients or customers, at the lowest possible cost.

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